Date: 05-Sep-2013 08:59:44 AM
Subject: Decisive Proofs of the Finality of Prophethood [Khatm-e-Nabuwwat]
..:: Proof from the Holy Qur'an ::..
The Noble and Exalted Qur'an states:
ما كان محمد أبا أحد من رجالكم ولكن رسول الله وخاتم النبيين وكان الله بكل شيء عليما
Muhammad (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon Him) is not the father of any man among you – but he is the Noble Messenger of Allah and the Last of the Prophets; and Allah knows all things. [Surah al-Ahzab, Verse 40]
This Qur'anic verse is an unequivocally decisive primary text [nass] that there will be no prophet after him. And since there will be no Prophet (Nabi), it follows a fortiori that there will be no Prophetic Messenger (Rasool). Exalted Muslim Scholars, since the time of our beloved Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi WA Sallam), have correctly understood this verse to indicate that no new prophet or messenger will be sent to humanity until the day of judgment. Following are few interpretations of well-known Muslim Scholars on the finality of prophethood in chronological order.
Allama Ibn Jarir Tabari [224-310 AH] interprets:
Muhammad (SallAllahu Alaihi WA Sallam) is the last prophet, the one who has closed up Prophethood or sealed it. This seal will not be opened for anyone till the Day of Judgment. [Tafsir Ibn-e-Jarir, Vol. 22, Page 12]
Imam Abu Hayyan al Andalusi [d. 445 AH] after decisively proving Finality of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) from Quran and Sunnah writes in his Tafsir Al-Bahr al-Muheet:
A person who has a viewpoint that Prophethood is not closed, or one who thinks that a Wali is superior than Nabi then such a person is Zindeeq (Heretic) and "Wajib al-Qatl". Those who had claimed Prophethood amongst people then Muslims have killed them. [Tafsir Bahr al-Muheet, Under 33:40]
Muhiyy as-Sunnah Baghawi [d. 510 AH] has written:
Allah has closed the line of Prophethood after Prophet Muhammad (SallAllahu Alaihi WA Sallam). Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas (Radi Allahu Anhu) says that Allah has declared that there is no Prophet after him [Tafsir Ma'alim at-Tanzil, Vol. 3, Page 158]
Allama Zamakhshari [467-538 AH] has stated:
If you say how can he (SallAllahu Alaihi WA Sallam) be the Last Prophet when Sayyiduna Eisa (Ala Nabiyyina WA Alaihis Salat WA as-Salam) will come in the future ages, I will reply that he (SallAllahu Alaihi WA Sallam) is the Last Prophet in the sense that after him no New Prophet will come; Sayyiduna Eisa (Ala Nabiyyina WA Alaihis Salat WA as-Salam) is one of those Prophets who have already come before him. When Sayyiduna Eisa (Ala Nabiyyina WA Alaihis Salat WA as-Salam) will come again, he will follow the Shari'ah of Prophet Muhammad (SallAllahu Alaihi WA Sallam) and will face Qibla in his Salah; this means that he will come as an individual of this Ummah.
Imam Raazi [543-606 AH] is of the opinion that:
The words Khatam an-Nabiyeen are used to show that the Shari'ah of Islam is complete. The view that no prophet will come after Muahmmad (SallAllahu Alaihi WA Sallam) is also more affectionate too and particular about his (SallAllahu Alaihi WA Sallam) Ummah and gives the significance of the words in more details. This is like the example of a son who has no guardian after his father. [Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. 6, Page 581]
Allama Baydawi [d. 685 AH] says:
Prophet Muhammad (SallAllahu Alaihi WA Sallam) is the last of all Prophets. He has sealed the Prophethood of all Prophets, or their Prophethood has been sealed by him. It makes no difference that Sayyiduna Eisa (Ala Nabiyyina WA Alaihis Salat WA as-Salam) will come again after him, because he will come as a follower of his (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) Noble Shari'ah. [Tafsir al-Baydawi, Vol. 2, Page 196]
Allama Nasafi [d. 710 AH] recorded that:
Prophet Muhammad (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) is at the end of all Prophets (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam); and after him there will be no New Prophet; and Sayyiduna Eisa (Ala Nabiyyina wa Alaihis Salat wa as-Salam) was made a Prophet before him (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam); and when he comes again, he will come as a follower of the Shari'ah of Prophet Muhammad (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) as if he (Sayyiduna Eisa) were an individual of this Ummah. [Tafsir Madarik al-Tanzil,Vol. 3, Page 234]
Allama Alauddin Khazin [d. 725 AH] has expressed the view that:
Allah has ended the line of Prophethood through him (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam). Therefore, neither there is Prophethood after him, nor any other Prophet during his own time. Indeed, Ibn Abbas has said that Allah has declared there will be no Prophet after him (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam). [Tafsir al-Khazin, Vol. 5, Page 218]
Ibn Kathir [d. 774 AH] comments:
Allah Most Blessed and Exalted has stated in His book, as has His Messenger (Allah bless him and give him peace) in hadiths of numerous channels of transmission (mutawatir) that there will be no prophet after him, so that whoever claims this rank thereafter is a lying (kadhab) pretender (dajjal), misled and misleading, even if he should stage miracles and exhibit all kinds of magic, talismans and spells. [Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Vol. 3, Page 493]
Imam Jalal al-Din Suyuti [d. 911 AH] says:
The words Khatam an-Nabiyyeen mean there will be no new prophet after him (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) and when Sayyiduna Eisa (Ala Nabiyyina wa Alaihis Salat wa as-Salam) will come again, he will act according to the Shari'ah of Prophet Muhammad (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam). [Jalalayn Ala Hamish Jamal, Vol. 3, Page 442]
Allama Ismail Haqqi [d. 1137 AH] has stated:
Read the phrase Khatam an-Nabiyyeen with the upsound of "Taa" which means the instrument by which something is closed (sealed). The meaning is that he (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) was the last of all Prophets by whom the office of all Prophets has been sealed. In Persian, "Seal of Prophets" means that by him the doors of Prophethood have been sealed, and the line of Prophethood terminated once and for all. Some other scholars have read this with a down sound of "Taa" which indicates he was "Khatim" in the sense of "Fa'ail". In Persian, it will mean the one who seals (ends) the prophets, in which case, the meaning is the same. [Tafsir Rooh al-Bayan, Vol. 22 Page 188]
Qadhi Thanaullah Panipatti [d. 1255 AH] writes in his Tafsir al-Mazhari:
Khatam has been mentioned (in this Aayah) in the meaning of Aakhir (Last) and someone who came to bring an end to something as Last Nabi after whom no Prophet will come. [Tafsir al-Mazhari, Vol. 9, Page 266]
Allama Aaloosi [d. 1270 AH] writes:
Hadrat Muhammad (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) is also Khatim al-Mursaleen meaning that after his Prophethood there will be no Prophethood at all. [Tafsir Rooh al-Ma'ani, Vol. 22, Page 23]
..:: Proofs from the overwhelming Ahadith ::..
Narrated Sayyiduna Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu): The Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said,
"The Children of Israel used to be ruled and guided by prophets: Whenever a prophet died, another would take over his place. There will be no prophet after me, but there will be Caliphs who will increase in number." The people asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What do you order us (to do)?" He said, "Obey the one who will be given the pledge of allegiance first. Fulfil their (i.e. the Caliphs) rights, for Allah will ask them about (any shortcoming) in ruling those Allah has put under their guardianship." [Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 4, Hadith 661]
Narrated Sayyiduna Sa'ad (Radi Allahu Anhu):
Allah's Apostle (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) set out for Tabuk appointing Sayyiduna 'Ali as his deputy (in Madinah). Hadrat 'Ali said, "Do you want to leave me with the children and women?" The Prophet said, "Will you not be pleased that you will be to me like Aaron to Moses? But there will be no prophet after me." [Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 5, Hadith 700]
Narrated Sayyiduna Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu): Allah's Apostle (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said,
"The Hour will not be established (1) till two big groups fight each other whereupon there will be a great number of casualties on both sides and they will be following one and the same religious doctrine, (2) till about thirty dajjals (liars) appear, and each one of them will claim that he is Allah's Apostle, (3) till the religious knowledge is taken away (by the death of Religious scholars) (4) earthquakes will increase in number (5) time will pass quickly, (6) afflictions will appear, (7) Al-Harj, (i.e., killing) will increase, (8) till wealth will be in abundance..." [Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 9, Page 237]
Narrated Sayyiduna Isma'il (Radi Allahu Anhu):
I asked Abi Aufa, "Did you see Ibrahim, the son of the Prophet?" He said, "Yes, but he died in his early childhood. Had there been a Prophet after Muhammad then his son would have lived, but there is no Prophet after him." [Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 8, Page 214]
Narrated Hadrat Sayyidah Ayesha (Radi Allahu Anha):
"Prophethood will NOT continue after me, except the harbingers of good news". They asked "What are the harbingers of good news, O Apostle of Allah?." He replied: "Virtuous and pious dreams a Muslim sees or are shown to him". [Musnad of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal]
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said,
"My similitude in comparison with the other prophets before me, is that of a man who has built a house nicely and beautifully, except for a place of "ONE" brick in a corner. The people go about it and wonder at its beauty, but say: 'Would that this brick be put in its place!' So I am that brick, and I am the last of the Prophets."
Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 4, Hadith 735
Sahih Muslim, Hadith 5675
Musnad Ahmad, Hadith 7479
Sunan al-Bayhaqi, Hadith 11422
Sayyiduna Anas bin Malik (Radi Allahu Anhu) narrates from the Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) who said:
The Messengership and Prophethood have ended and there will be no Messenger and Prophet after me.
Sunnan Tirimdhi, Hadith 2274
Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol. 3, Page 467
Mustadrak ala al-Sahihayn lil Hakim, Vol. 4, Page 391
Sayyiduna Abu Huraira (Radi Allahu Anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allah (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said:
I have been given superiority over the other prophets in six respects: I have been given words which are concise but comprehensive in meaning; I have been helped by terror (in the hearts of enemies); spoils have been made lawful to me; the earth has been made for me clean and a place of worship; I HAVE BEEN SENT TO ALL MANKIND AND THE LINE OF PROPHETS IS CLOSED WITH ME. [Sahih, Muslim, Hadith 1062]
The Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said:
Allah has not sent any Prophet who did not warn his nation about Dajjal, but Now "I AM THE LAST OF PROPHETS" and you are the last Ummah, he will for sure arise from amongst you. [Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith 4067]
The Prophet of Allah (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said:
I was Last Prophet in (sight) of Allah when Adam's Khameer was being created. [Shu'ab al-Iman, Vol. 2, Page 134]
Hadrat Jabir bin Abdullah (Radi Allahu Anhu) narrates that the Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said:
I am the leader of all Prophets and there is no boast, I am the Last of all Prophets and there is no boast. [Sunnan al-Daarimi, Hadith 50]
Hadrat Abdullah bin Umar (Radi Allahu Anhu) narrates:
Once the Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) came to us in a way as If he is leaving us, then he said thrice: I am Muhammad the Ummi Prophet (SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam) and there is no Prophet after me. [Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal, Vol. 2, Page 172]
The Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said:
There is no Prophet after me, and there is no Ummah after you, so you should worship your Lord and say your five daily prayers, and fast in your month (Ramadan), obey your leaders and thus enter the Blessed garden of your Lord. [Mu'jam al-Kabir, Vol. 8, Hadith 7217]
Narrated Jubayr bin Mutim: Allah's Apostle (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said,
"I have five names: I am Muhammad and Ahmad; I am Al-Mahi through whom Allah will eliminate infidelity; I am Al-Hashir who will be the first to be resurrected, the people being resurrected there after; "AND I AM ALSO AL-AQIB (i.e. THERE WILL BE NO PROPHET AFTER ME)." [Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 4, Hadith 732]
Hadrat Ibn Abbas (Radi Allahu Anhu) narrates that the Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said:
I am Ahmad, Muhammad, Hashir, Muqaffi (One who is sent in the last) and I am Khaatim. [Mu'jam al-Saghir, Hadith 152]
Now, the above is just a small portion of the vast amount of mutawatir evidence that proves conclusively that there are no prophets after the Prophet Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace), if someone believe that there is a prophet after him he is a kafir. There is absolutely and utterly no room for any doubt in this matter. In the face of such overwhelming evidence then why is it that the Qadianis persist in their misguided and misguiding belief?
..:: Consensus of Muslim Scholars and Ummah ::..
Throughout the centuries, Muslim Scholars have unanimously supported the fundamental doctrine of Finality of Prophethood in Prophet Muhammad (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam). So much so, that the entire Ummah has recognized anyone who claims to be a prophet (in any capacity), supports someone else's claim to prophethood, or views such claimant as a religious leader, to be an unbeliever (Kafir).
Imam Qadhi Iyadh al-Maaliki (Alaihir Rahmah), the author of magnificent Seerah work i.e. Al-Shifa, writes:
We declare that person as Kafir who considers someone along with you or after you as a Prophet, just like this we also declare him Kafir who claims that Revelation (Wahi) is sent to him even if he does not claim propethood, Thus all such people are disbeleivers because they do Takdhib of Prophet (i.e. call him liar – Na'udhu Billah). The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) has informed us that he is Khatam al-Nabiyyeen and no prophet will come after him and that he has been sent to all people. The ummah is unanimous that this Kalaam is to be taken on its apparent and there is no room for any Ta'weel, or Takhsees and the Kufr of such people is Qat'i (i.e. Definite) Ijma'i (i.e. Unanimously Agreed). [Ash-Shifa, Page 237-238]
The great Hanafi Imams, Allama Khafaji (Alaihir Rahmah) and Mullah Ali Qari (Alaihir Rahmah) have also endorced this strongly in Naseem ar-Riyadh, Vol. 6, Page 355-256 and Sharh ash-Shifa Vol. 2, Page 515-516.
Hujjatul Islam Imam Muhammad al-Ghazzali (Rahimuhullah) have stated:
We have known through "Consensus" that La Nabi B'adi (There is no Prophet after me) proves that the door to Prophethood has been permanently closed after Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and the word "Khatam an-Nabiyyeen" also includes all Anbiya. We are thus certain that there is no room for any kind of Ta'weel (interpolation) or Takhsees (to make specific such as Nabi could come in this form or that form – Na'udhu Billah). Whosoever does Ta'weel in this hadith then he is Munkir of Consensus. [Al-Iqtisad fil I'tiqad, Page 163]
Imam Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi, the great Hanbali Imam said:
Whosoever claims Prophethood or one who accepts his claim then (both) become Apostates because when Musaylama Kaddhab claimed to be Prophet and his people testified to it then all of them became apostates along with him. [Al-Mugni, Vol. 9, Page 33]
Imam al-Tahawi [d. 321 AH] states:
"Every claim to prophethood after him is falsehood and deceit." [al-Aqidah al-Tahawiyya]
This is the greatest favour of Allah Almighty upon this Ummah that He has perfected for them their religion. Therefore, they will not be needful of a religion other than Islam nor of another Prophet other than their Prophet. May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him. This is why Allah has made him the last and final Prophet and sent him to both the humans and the Jinns.
The sheer amount of evidence provided here should suffice to convince anyone believing in the divinity of Islam that the Prophet Muhammad (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) is the last Prophet of Allah and that anyone with a claim to prophethood should be considered an outcast from Islam.
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